A Beginner’s Guide to Horse Care: Essential Tips for New Owners


Caring for a horse can be a deeply rewarding experience, offering a unique blend of companionship, outdoor activity, and responsibility. For new horse owners, however, understanding the basics of good horse care is essential to ensure the health and happiness of your new equine friend. From feeding and grooming to regular health check-ups, this guide covers the fundamental aspects of horse care that every new owner needs to know.

Understanding Horse Feeding Basics

Horses Eating

Horses are non-ruminant herbivores with a single stomach, making their digestive system more similar to that of humans than to cows. They have a relatively small stomach but a large and complex hindgut that includes the cecum and colon, where fermentation of fibrous plant material occurs. This system is efficient at processing high-quality forage and commercial feeds that are low in fiber but can be sensitive to changes in diet and overfeeding.

Horses need frequent, small meals because their stomachs are small relative to their body size. Overfeeding can lead to digestive issues like colic or laminitis. Horses also have continuous upper GI tract secretion of acid, so having some form of forage available almost constantly helps buffer this acid and prevent ulcers.

Horses have sensitive digestive systems, so any changes to their diet need to be made gradually to avoid upsetting their GI tract, which can lead to serious health issues. Because horses cannot vomit and colic is a common and serious issue, their dietary management needs to be carefully controlled. They require balance and consistency with an emphasis on high-quality feedstuff.

Proper nutrition is foundational to a horse’s health. Here’s how you can get it right:

  • Forage First: Horses are grazing animals, and their primary diet should be good quality hay or pasture grass. Forage should make up at least 70% of their diet because it is crucial for their digestive system.
  • Concentrates: Depending on your horse’s age, workload, and health, you may need to supplement their diet with grains or commercially prepared horse feeds. Consult with a veterinarian or an equine nutritionist to tailor the diet appropriately.
  • Fresh Water: Always ensure your horse has access to clean, fresh water. Dehydration can quickly lead to serious health issues.

Grooming: More Than Just Aesthetics

Horse Grooming

Regular grooming is essential not only for keeping your horse looking great but also for promoting skin health and providing several health benefits. Brushing your horse helps distribute natural oils throughout the coat, which promotes healthier skin and prevents various skin diseases. These grooming sessions also serve as excellent bonding moments, helping to build trust and a sense of security between you and your horse. Additionally, while grooming, you’re in a good position to notice any changes in your horse’s condition, such as cuts, swelling, or signs of illness that may require veterinary attention.

Regular Health Check-ups

Horse Checkup

Veterinary care is critical in maintaining your horse’s health. Schedule regular check-ups to ensure vaccinations are up-to-date, and health issues are addressed promptly. Establish a deworming schedule with your vet to manage parasite infestation, which can cause significant health problems. Hoof care is also crucial; hooves need regular trimming and care, even if your horse does not wear shoes, typically every 6 to 8 weeks by an equine farrier.

Horses, like any other pets or livestock, are prone to a variety of health issues. Some are relatively minor while others can be quite serious and require immediate veterinary attention. Here’s a rundown of some common horse health issues that owners might encounter:

  1. Colic: This term refers to any abdominal pain, although it commonly involves the gastrointestinal tract. Colic can range from mild to life-threatening and can be caused by food impaction, twisting of the gut, gas buildup, or sand ingestion. Symptoms include restlessness, sweating, looking at the flank, kicking or biting the belly, and rolling.
  2. Laminitis: Also known as founder, laminitis is a serious condition affecting the tissues (laminae) that bond the hoof wall to the pedal (coffin) bone in a horse’s hoof. It can cause severe pain and lameness, and in the worst cases, it can lead to the pedal bone rotating within the hoof or sinking. Triggers can include access to excessive amounts of grain, lush grass, severe colic, or systemic infections.
  3. Equine Influenza: A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms are similar to human flu and include coughing, nasal discharge, fever, and lethargy. Vaccination can prevent or mitigate the severity of the disease.
  4. Strangles: This is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus equi that affects the lymph nodes around the throat. It can lead to abscesses that cause swelling and can interfere with breathing. Strangles is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in stables.
  5. Arthritis: Common in older horses, arthritis involves inflammation of the joints, leading to pain and stiffness that can affect a horse’s mobility. Ongoing wear and tear from active competition or heavy workloads often leads to arthritis.
  6. Dermatological Issues: Horses can suffer from a variety of skin conditions such as rain rot, ringworm, and various allergies that cause itching and hair loss. Insect bites, particularly from flies and mosquitoes, can also lead to skin irritations and secondary infections.
  7. Dental Problems: Horses need regular dental care to manage problems such as sharp edges on teeth, overgrown teeth, or lost and broken teeth. Poor dental health can lead to difficulties in eating, weight loss, and behavior changes.
  8. Gastric Ulcers: Many horses, particularly those in high-stress environments or with intense training and competition schedules, can develop ulcers in their stomachs. Symptoms may include poor appetite, dull coat, weight loss, and changes in temperament.
  9. Hoof Problems: Issues like thrush (a fungal infection), abscesses, or laminitis can cause significant discomfort and lameness. Regular hoof care and maintenance are crucial for preventing such problems.
  10. Worm Infestations: Internal parasites can cause a wide range of health issues in horses, from mild digestive upset to severe life-threatening conditions. Regular deworming is necessary to manage the risks associated with parasitic infections.

Understanding these common health issues can help horse owners maintain their horses’ health through preventative care practices, regular veterinary check-ups, and prompt attention to any signs of illness.

Exercise and Training

Horse Exercise

Exercise and training are vital for your horse’s physical and mental health. Make sure your horse gets enough exercise to match their dietary intake, which helps prevent obesity and other metabolic issues. Consistent training sessions keep your horse mentally stimulated and physically fit, strengthening your communication and enhancing their overall demeanor.

The phrase “You look like you’ve been ridden hard and put up wet” is an evocative expression that originates from horseback riding. It paints a vivid picture of fatigue and neglect, implying a need for rest and rejuvenation. In horse care, it’s crucial to properly cool down a horse after vigorous exercise. If a horse is not allowed to cool down and is put away wet with sweat, it can be harmful to their health. Cooling down a horse is necessary for the following reasons:

  1. Temperature Regulation: After intense exercise, a horse’s body temperature is elevated. Proper cooling down helps gradually bring their temperature back to normal. If a horse is put away while still wet and hot, it can continue to overheat, which can lead to heatstroke or other heat-related issues.
  2. Muscle Stiffness and Discomfort: Without proper cooldown, a horse’s muscles remain tight and may become stiff. This can be uncomfortable and potentially harmful, leading to muscle spasms or deeper musculoskeletal issues. Allowing the horse to dry and cool down helps the muscles relax and return to normal functioning more smoothly.
  3. Skin Health: Sweat that remains on the horse’s skin can act as an irritant, potentially causing skin infections or conditions like rain rot (dermatophilosis) if the horse is exposed to cool conditions while still wet. Drying a horse off helps maintain healthy skin and coat.
  4. Risk of Illness: Chilling is a concern if a sweaty horse is exposed to cooler temperatures without proper drying. The evaporation of sweat can significantly lower the horse’s body temperature, leading to an increased risk of catching colds or developing respiratory issues.
  5. General Comfort and Hygiene: A wet and dirty coat can be uncomfortable for the horse and can attract dirt and bacteria. Ensuring that a horse is clean and dry before stabling helps to prevent these issues and keeps the horse more comfortable.

The process of properly cooling down a horse involves walking it until its breathing has returned to normal and its coat begins to dry, followed by grooming to help circulate air around the body and through the coat, which further aids in drying and cooling. This care not only ensures the immediate comfort and health of the horse but also contributes to its long-term well-being.

Providing a Safe Environment

horse shelter

Finally, your horse’s living environment plays a crucial role in their health and happiness. Provide a clean, dry, and well-ventilated living area, whether it’s a stable or a run-in shed, and regularly check fences for safety hazards and remove any dangerous objects like loose wire or poisonous plants.

Caring for a horse involves a significant amount of time, money, and effort, but the rewards of seeing your horse thrive and enjoying the relationship you build together are immense. With the right knowledge and resources, even a first-time horse owner can provide excellent care, ensuring their horse leads a healthy, happy life. Whether you’re grooming, feeding, or simply spending time together, every moment spent caring for your horse strengthens the bond you share.

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